"... When the British Army marched out of Boston on April 19, 1775, messengers on horseback, including Boston silversmith Paul Revere, fanned out across New England to raise the alarm. Summoned by the feverish pealing of church bells, militiamen from countless hamlets hurried toward Concord MA where the British regulars planned to destroy a rebel arsenal. Thousands of militiamen arrived in time to fight; 89 men from 23 towns in Massachusetts were killed or wounded on that first day of war, April 19, 1775. By the next morning, Massachusetts had 12 regiments in the field. Connecticut soon mobilized a force of 6,000, one-quarter of its military-age men. Within a week, 16,000 men from the four New England colonies formed a siege army outside British-occupied Boston. In June, the Continental Congress took over the New England army, creating a national force, the Continental Army. Thereafter, men throughout America took up arms. It seemed that every able-bodied American male had become a soldier.... Moreover, beginning in 1778, the New England states, and eventually all Northern states, enlisted African-Americans, a practice that congress had initially forbidden. Ultimately, some 5,000 blacks bore arms for the United States, approximately 5 percent of the total number of men who served in the Continental Army. The African-American soldiers made an important contribution to America's ultimate victory. In 1781, Baron Ludwig von Closen, a veteran officer in the French Army, remarked that the 'best [regiment] under arms' in the Continental Army was one in which 75 percent of the soliders were African-Americans.... The defeat [of British Gen. John Burgoyne outside Saratoga NY, involving his surrender of 5,895 men to American forces on 10/17/1777] persuaded France to form a military alliance with the United States.... General Washington, who rarely made optimistic pronouncements, exulted that France's entry into the war in February 1778 had introduced 'a most happy tone to all our affairs,' as it 'must put the Independency of America out of all manner of dispute.'... [Comte de] Rochambeau, who took action without Washington's knowledge, conceived the Virginia campaign that resulted in the war's decisive encounter, the siege of Yorktown in the autumn of 1781. Much of the war's decision-making was hidden from the public. Not even Congress was aware that the French, not Washington, had formulated the stragegy that led to America's triumph. During Washington's presidence, the American pamphlateer Thomas Paine, then living in France, revealed much of what had occurred...." -- John Ferling in Myths of the American Revolution, Smithsonian Magazine, 1/10
Video below: French Win, World Cup, Germany 2006
On July 4, 1776, our forebearers -- inspired and empowered by an ennobling God, had said, without equivocation: "... ALL [emphasis added] men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights [and] among them are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness...." just as Old and New Testament monarchs and laypeople, generals and prophets, Jesus and disciples, apostles and saints have reiterated over millenia, as the voice of God through His people, that we "do unto others as we would have done unto us," "love our neighbors as ourselves," and our God above all others in avoiding divine wrath against and upon "the generations of those who hate Him."
"...12. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
13. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
14. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
15. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
16. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
17. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
18. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact so tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the Confederacy, than according to the rules of common law.
19. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
20. Every law, or resolution having the force of law, shall relate to but one subject, and that shall be expressed in the title."
-- Constitution of the Confederate States of America, Section 9, Articles 12-20
"On April 10, 1861, Brig. Gen. Beauregard, in command of the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, South Carolina, demanded the surrender of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Garrison commander Anderson refused. On April 12, Confederate batteries opened fire on the fort, which was unable to reply effectively. At 2:30 pm, April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the garrison on the following day. The bombardment of Fort Sumter was the opening engagement of the American Civil War. Although there were no casualties during the bombardment, one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded (one mortally) when a cannon exploded prematurely while firing a salute during the evacuation on April 14." -- National Park Service
"Decades of growing strife between North and South erupted in civil war on April 12, 1861, when Confederate artillery opened fire on this Federal fort in Charleston Harbor. Fort Sumter surrendered 34 hours later. Union forces would try for nearly four years to take it back." -- National Park Service
Historical Note: In regard to the Civil War and in the interests of balanced accuracy, it's incumbent on us to remember that our remaining fascinating ancestry and experience as a nation in collective and individual existences as African-European settlers to begin with on this North American part of the continent -- from Masschusetts' colonial Plymouth Rock and the East Tennessee Watauga Association's initial experiment in democracy, to establishment of the State of Franklin, which would have been the fourteenth if accepted by the other initiating thirteen, to the birth of our nation as the United States of America, through to our present global prominance -- comprise 98.5% of our temporal heritage here. We've lost astounding population percentages and material resources in our other wars, compromising over 90% of those in which our engagement was determined to be also honorably necessary in service of democracy.
There are living veterans today of World War II, Korea, Vietnam, Bosnia, Desert Storm, and Iraq/Afghanistan to be remembered and cared for and descendants of the French-Indian and Revolutionary Wars, that of 1812, the Spanish-American War and World War I interested in researching, preserving and commemorating also those past sacrifices proportionately. In the interests of sober perspective it's important not to attend too obsessively upon four sad and divisive, destructive and exorbitantly expensive years that are an especially miniscule representation of our total knowledge in this environment if we include also Native American societies and cultures as we need to for healthy personal and national identities now. The bloody battlegrounds and devastation precipitated legally by deliberate and intentional Confederate assault on the federal land of South Carolina's Fort Sumter, thereby igniting the Constitutional requirement that our Commander-in-Chief defend United States territory militarily, are testament enough to that enervating 1.5% of our national time here geographically and as citizens of this country.
"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate...we can not consecrate...we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government: of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." -- President Abraham Lincoln's famously loved and invoked Gettysburg Address delivered 11/19/1863 in dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery on a Civil War battlefield site in the Union state of Pennsylvania where "more than 160,000" soldiers fought in a town numbering "only 2,400" residents leaving "more than 7,500 dead soldiers and several thousand horses" total from the Union and invading Confederate armies
In sesquicentennial remembrance, ACR will publish a series of articles and stories over the next four years on the experience of African slavery here from the viewpoints of those whose real identities, memories and cultures were destroyed by restriction, physical and verbal harm and disinformation, forced labor and copulation, dispersal from family, friends, tribes and homelands, and constant denigration as objects to be bought and sold rather than as God-created and free human beings, and explore that legacy in mindsets and social dysfunction. That research effort and publication will emphasize also how submerged individuals and cultures grasped and held the faith, strength, courage, focus and determination necessary to reclaim and remake their heritage, connection and personhood for the benefit of all. It will also contrastdiffering approaches to the "identity crisis" faced by Southern Caucasians post-war: those like the family of Carolyn Moore who chose to embrace pluralism and make their own "reparations" privately, financially and politically to former slaves generally, and those who attempted to reconstruct and preserve their old identities inappropriately and awkwardly amidst extraordinary social and economic change to which those were increasingly disjoined and alienated. An extension of that research will compare regions like Atlanta GA to those like Virginia's Shenandoah Valley in acclimating to 20th and 21st century socio-economic changes and demands. Native Americans experienced similar disorientations and dismemberments by "massahs," controlled and held against their wills in abject and servile bondage. Both groups were generally regarded as "savage" and inferior -- negligible in terms of any knowledge, skills, talents, intelligence and spirituality they might have to offer and share -- which provided the theoretical justification for annihilation in body, cultural construct and mentality.
Other ethnicities and women and children have been treated similarly off and on by Gentile males in acquisition of what isn't or wasn't legally and ethically theirs to own or rule. During World War II, for instance, the properties, businesses and persons of Japanese-Americans -- but not Germans whose submarines harasssed our coastal waters and whose native country was the incipient and driving force of Axis power and fascist aggression -- were seized and never compensated. The disdain, discrimination and denigration of Jews by "Christians" over two millenia past, and frequently paranoid defamation within this country since its founding, is like being invited into a man's house, shooting him in the foyer, and proceeding to rearrange his furnishings in awkward and uncomfortable ways after throwing his body thanklessly and thoughtlessly out the back door. It is only by the fierce dedication and sacrifice of person, property and life of early Jews that "Christians" have the knowledge of the message and reality of Jesus Christ, as well of course as of the God of Israel, at all although they've distorted it all to degrees that Jews naturally reject. It is their religion and history and their Messiah King they chose to share as a gift to the world right before, like the proverbial horse, being kicked in the teeth until any still alive and cognizant probably regretted it thoroughly. "Just forget we told you all that. You weren't ready. Come back when you grow up, and we'll try to explain it again." It may have been divine providence as much as accident that the ancient Judean Dead Sea scrolls were discovered mid-20th century, although release of contents took awhile as hurdles were jumped against their being widely disseminated and known. "Christianity" had become so misconstrued and corrupted that it bore little resemblance to the truths originally experienced and conveyed. There was, for instance, the kind of effeminate, passive, insipid, ignorant blonde struck suddenly from his stupid labor in a provincial field by the thunderbolt of God -- no doubt a hope of those who purveyed that myth as being what might happen to them also if they did nothing but watch, wait and pray rather than struggle, strain, study, work, question, ponder and slog through it all for the glory awaiting only the diligent, the faithful and the strong of mind and heart and soul. Jews, and Arabs historically, have a heavy and sacrosanct tradition of strenuous discussion and dissection of ideas, events, thoughts, perceptions and understandings of realities and laws, which is mirrored in their political parties and synogogues as well as familial and social gatherings. We would do well for ourselves to emulate that in honoring and valuing all considered opinions and observations for a healthy dynamic of shared consciousness and communal social progress.
We are now rated amongst all countries on Earth as sixth in overall quality of life and 37th in health care provision for our citizens. In democratic realization, we are not amongst the highest-rated 15 in the world now, a list which is top-heavy with Nordic nations and includes also Canada, Austria, Ireland, and Germany. (The Economist) "If China became a Free country, the percentage of the world’s population living in freedom would rise from 46 to 66 percent." (Freedom House). In other words, those advocating and living in freedom and democracy are a minority in our early years of the 21st century on this planet.
Jonesborough TN is the initiating public home of the abolition movement coordinated publically by Quakers and most of the land comprising East Tennessee was purchased from the Cherokee in a very large tract, although some may have been less than pleased at its sale, but it was unforced and fair for its time and price. Although Tennessee formally aligned itself with the Confederacy, Jonesborough and "The Lost State of Franklin" (East Tennessee) chose to be Union officially and regardless of hostile capture by the gray during most of the War Between The States and the people. Although beer is available from local groceries and quick-stops, "cool" and genteel Jonesborough itself has long been a "dry" town with the mass appeal of family-friendly, alcohol-prohibited festivities like Jonesborough Days, bi-annual Town Yard Sales, and the International Storytelling Festival. One must drive to "the big cities" of Johnson City or Greeneville for lounge-and-bar rowdiness, or champagne. There's no "town drunk" that I've ever encountered or heard tales of, although Jonesborough's 19th century history and demeanor was less pristine according to local legends, documents, photographs and storytelling.
Slavery of any kind of any person has been outlawed in the United States since President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. African-American men eventually became allowed to vote through Constitutional Amendment, much later also and similarly granted to all women after their prolonged protests, struggles, public organization, writings and street demonstrations, jailings, harassments and discriminations. Native Americans also were finally granted full American citizenship rights, along with exclusive sovereignty over their own remaining geographic territories, and those of Japanese-Americans, of course, were restored. It's obvious from the tumultuous and contentious evolution of our social and governmental structures and that of our codified laws from settlement up to the present, as all have become more encompassing, that the highest Court in the land is heavenly and holy. It is not of man as he stumbles and falls and rises again toward higher purpose and conscious intention.
Equal rights are not given by any human being. They are, rather, taken away off and on and, hopefully, restored eventually by acquiescence or righteous force as in this country and throughout history. We are all born free in the conception and sight of God. Throughout our evolutionary expansion around the globe, however, various aggressive and domineering individuals and groups have criminally seized from one, a few or many others distinct from themselves in some way that liberty and equal right to free will choice, direction, opportunity and responsibility by subtle and overt slavery, autocratic rule for their own perceived benefit exclusively and the assuasion of overweening and mistaken ego-fulfillment, self-images unaligned with true identity and place amongst the human species by gender, race, ethnicity, size, conformation, geography and/or creed, an arrogance that they are by corporal group membership or self-assigned privilege better, superior and more entitled to goods and services, special obeisance, and execution of their wants and needs over those of the target "inferior" person or group.
That distortion, psychopathology, refuses to recognize, denies existence of individual difference across groups in native intelligence, education, knowledge, skill, and similar qualities of essential import that do not adhere to physical aspect. For instance, our current President is a "black" man, African-American, as is his wife -- both of whom have the obvious intelligence and skill to earn doctorates from prestigiously excellent universities and become our First Family by popular acclaim and will after successful private professional careers in law, teaching, organization and wholesome nurturance. To site an extreme example from the left side of our normal curve, Jeffrey Dahmer, a cannibal of other living men, and Ma Barkley, a thieving and murderous outlaw, were Caucasian-Americans. Obviously, degrees of difference from highly ethical and multiply-accomplished through disreputable and socio-mentally diseased exist across groups and personalities as one observes objectively the human species resplendant and not throughout the centuries and millenia of our existences and evolutions on Earth.
That undeniable truth of fundamental freedom and equality of divine creation does demand a concerted and intentionally discerning effort to distinguish each individual not by group membership but by unique personal identity and possibility. It cannot be avoided, although the simplistic solution of identification and tracking by physicality is quicker, easier, and seductive to lazy and/or hazy minds and bodies. But that hypothesis is untrue and wrong, leading down a catastrophic path of ruin for all, the way of a dead past rather than a bright and enlivening, loving, richly rewarding, enjoyable and pleasant future for all, including those with the free will to choose the structure they wish to accept and pursue as good and healthy. We are all One in our variously-gifted humanity, although some are criminally diseased and must be separated in treatment from the community of nations and human beings for safety of the majority.
Video below: Buju Banton with Untold Stories
1. Intertribal Dancers performing on their festive Jonesborough Days site between the Jonesborough Public Library and Visitors Center
2. 20th century historical marker on Main Street, Jonesborough TN commemorating its active abolitionist history and spire of historic Presbyterian Church
3. Photocopy of our President and Vice President with greeting to "Ms. [Carolyn] Moore," and the handwritten message, "Thank you for your remarkable commitment to our Party. Warmest regards, Joe Biden" affixed to door window of one of her Main Street properties (the one in which ACR's publisher lived previously and as recounted elsewhere). Click graphic for link to White House website and update on latest programs, policies, outreach to and feedback from citizens.
"When [Revolutionary War veteran and first Gettysburg settler, Swiss-German descendant] John Troxell died in 1855 at the age of 94, according to his tombstone in Evergreen Cemetery, he left 10 children, 71 grandchildren, 120 great-grandchildren, and 20 great-great grandchildren to mourn his passing." -- The Gettysburg Experience
"In great deeds something abides. On great fields something stays. Forms change and pass; bodies disappear; but spirits linger, to consecrate ground for the vision-place of souls. And reverent men and women from afar, and generations that know us not and that we know not of, heart-drawn to see where and by whom great things were suffered and done for them, shall come to this deathless field, to ponder and dream, and lo! The shadow of a mighty presence shall wrap them in its bosom, and the power of the vision pass into their souls." -- General Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Former Colonel of the 20th Maine Infantry, Gettysburg PA, 1889
Pete Seeger and Bruce Springsteen performing "This Land Is Your Land, The Land is My Land"
"Then they began to search the premises and soon Robinson saw my tracks in the soft ground and calling to his comrade said, 'Here is his tracks,' and they pursued. I ran more than a mile and was about to meet some young men; and, to avoid them, I turned aside and concealed myself behind some fence rails. By this time I was almost given out, as I was not strong after my severe attack of fever, and I began to expectorate blood. The young men, or boys, stopped a good while and prevented my going on, until the officers came upon me, or within fifty yards of me. So I determined to make another desperate effort to escape. I leaped from my concealment and Brook Schroggs fired three or four times at me with a large revolver; but a kind providence shielded me from the deadly balls. Schroggs was walking to follow my trail through the fields. So I ran back east as they were west of me, in the direction of Tusculum and I gained on my pursuers rapidly and would have gotten away again if Schroggs had not met a neighbor boy going to milk and pulled him off his horse near where President Jere Moore's residence now stands at Tusculum -- and before I got across that 75 acre field, Schroggs overtook me. I sat down, exhausted. He snapped his pistol at me several times but it did not go off -- Providence again interfered and caused a piece of cap to lodge, so the barrel would not revolve. He cursed me most bitterly and tried to get his horse to walk over me as I sat on the ground. I told him I would rather die than go into the Rebel army and fight against my principles and I never would fire a gun for the confederacy. By this time Allen G. Robinson, the other officer, came up. (He was a distant relative to myself and Mannie McGaughey and on the Sabbath before he sat by me at Mt. Bethel Church, sang from the same book, and twitted me frequently during the sermon by pinching me, etc.) When Robinson came up Schroggs asked him for his pistol and Robinson gave it to him. Schroggs then swore he would kill me if I moved." -- Dr. A. S. N. Dobson, Nolichuky Valley, unpublished biography, reprinted from The Nolichucky Settlements in The Historical News, Summer 2009
"But when the cost of the war escalated, the Union ratcheted up existing levies and enacted the first federal income tax to finance the war... the Confederacy -- buoyed by its outsize military confidence and burdened by its antidemocratic political culture -- continued to resist nearly any form of centralized taxation until it was too late." -- Ajay K. Mehrotra, Professor of Law and History, Indiana University, in Pay to Win, Washington Monthly, August/September 2008
"... the invasion of Iraq ... currently costs Americans $12 billion a month.... tax cuts.... drained nearly $61 billion from the federal treasury in 2003...." -- Ajay K. Mehrotra, Professor of Law and History, Indiana University, in Pay to Win, Washington Monthly, August/September 2008
"Fear that the past would return, that it would come back in all its disaggregated fury [of a] slide into medieval barbarity... where you could see with your own eyes a civilization imploded, and all the new creatures and strange philosophies it produced [fueled the Taliban's success in Afghanistan].... War was serious in Afghanistan, but not that serious. It was part of everyday life. It was a job. Only the civilians seemed to lose...." --New York Times journalist Dexter Filkins in The Forever War
".... without democratization -- by which I mean the promotion of self-government in which powers are restrained by staunch guarantees of freedom of speech, association, privacy, and other human and civil rights -- we lack a moral basis for our foreign policy beyond self-interest.... it's relatively easy to pine for what we had before 2003; America could claim a principled denial of self-aggrandizement, a generosity of spirit, and a respect for the opinions of others combined with a pride in our own democratic institutions.... we must set the example of good government, prosperity, transparency, and tolerance...." -- Wesley K. Clark, former supreme commander of NATO, in Freedom's Long March, Washington Monthly, August/September 2008
"Establishing churches throughout East Tennessee, Dr. Hezekiah B. Hankel [1825-1903] was dedicated to healing not only a person's soul, but their physical body, as well. He was a pastor and a medical doctor. Born a slave in the Free Hill section of Washington County (present day Boones Creek) TN, he founded two churches in Washington County, one in Johnson City and one in Rogersville TN. In 1873, he integrated his medical practice in Johnson City and had white patients under his care. On March 23, 1887, Dr. Hankel was elected to Johnson City's Board of Mayor and Alderman and he was one of the founders of Langston Normal School in Johnson City." -- TN AT&T Tennessee African-American History Calendar 2009
"Site of the first large battle in the Western Theater, Shiloh was also one of the bloodiest battles in U.S. history with more than 23,746 casualties. Today, the fields are lined with memorials and an interpretive center offers films and exhibits. A 9.5-mile driving tour includes 14 stops at famous battle sites.... Drive or walk around the [Memphis National] Cemetery and learn about the area's role in the war. Almost 14,000 soldiers are buried here, 8,866 of them unknown. While in town, drop by the Memphis Pink Palace Museum to see more Civil War artifacts...." -- Civil War Trails of Tennessee
"Many Union sympathizers hid out and left the County, led by such Union guides as Don Ellis and others, into Kentucky where they could join the Union Army. Other Union camps were set up in East Tennessee, but these were considered as armed camps and were subject to raid and seizure and confinement as prisoners of war, so that most went to Kentucky. It was reported that they left at the rate of from twenty up to a hundred men per day."
Graphic below: American Revolutionary War Overmountain Men Reenactors at Jonesborough Veterans Memorial, September 2009
"In May 1861, before Tennessee voted on Secession, there was a protest meeting held in Greeneville. It was strongly urged that everyone vote against Secession. After the vote had been taken, another and more important Convention was held in Greeneville on June 17, 1861 to last four days, at which the action of the state was denounced as 'hasty, inconsiderate and unconstitutional' and a memorial was adopted and submitted to the legislature at Nashville. The resolution denounced the legislation and referendum as 'unconstitutional and illegal and therefore not binding upon us as loyal citizens. This Convention was called by Judge T.A.R. Nelson and all counties in East Tennessee were represented except Rhea County. The election was held to be a fraud because of open ballots, coercion of voters, etc. The following resolutions were adopted:
'1. We respectfully petition the General Assembly to keep Tennessee from War.
2. The action of the State is illegal, unconstitutional and not binding on us as loyal citizens of East Tennessee.
3. We appoint O. P. Temple of Knox County, John Netherland of Hawkins County and James P. McDowell of Greene County to prepare a memorial and present it to the General Assembly now in session, asking consent to form a separate state....'
This Convention, the speeches there and in connection thereof, flamed the fires of strife in the County and Southern Sympathizers requested troops. Thereupon two Southern Regiments were sent on July 26th 1861...." -- Carl N. Hayes in Greene County in the Civil War, as quoted by John L. Kiener for the Jonesborough Genealogical Society and Digging For Your Roots in Herald & Tribune, 9/29/09
Graphic below: School children and their teachers attending introductory remarks by descendent of John Sevier, Tennessee revolutionary war hero and founder of the state of Franklin, at Overmountain Men reenactment and presentation of commemorative Sevier brick for the Jonesborough Veterans Memorial, September 2009
Constitution of the Confederate States of America, Montgomery AL, March 11, 1861, ratified by the states of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, and shortly later by Virginia (April 17, 1861), Arkansas (May 6, 1861), Tennessee (May 7, 1861) and North Carolina (May 20, 1861) following the original Confederate military attack on the Union Fort Sumter
confederacy: 1. an alliance between persons, parties, states, etc., for some purpose. 2. a group of persons, parties, states, etc., united by such a confederacy. 3. a combination of persons for unlawful purposes; conspiracy. confederate: 1. a person, group, nation, etc., united with others in a confederacy; an ally. 2. an accomplice, esp. in a mischievous or criminal act.
Graphic above: Old barn and field three blocks south of Main Street, Jonesborough TN
What is it good for?
What is it good for?
Say it again.
What is it good for?
hup, two, three four
War! I despise,
'Cause it means destruction of innocent lives,
War means tears in thousands of mother's eyes,
When their sons go to fight and lose their lives.
What is a good for?
Say it again!
What is a good for?
It's nothin' but a heartbreaker,
Friend only to the undertaker.
hup, two, three four
War is an enemy to all mankind.
The thought of war blows my mind.
War has caused unrest within the younger generation.
Induction then destruction. Who wants to die?
What is a good for?
What is a good for?
Is nothin' but a heartbreaker.
Friend only to the undertaker.
hup, two, three four
War have shattered many a young man's dreams,
Made him disabled, bitter and mean.
Life is much too short and precious,
To spend fightin' wars these days.
War can't give life, it can only take it away!
Good God. Hmm-hmm-hmm hmm-hmm.
What is a good for?
Good God, almighty. Listen
What is a good for?
It's nothin' but a heartbreaker.
Friend only to the undertaker.
hup, two, three four
Peace, love and understandin',
Tell me, is there no place for them today?
They say we must fight to keep our freedom,
But Lord knows there's got to be a better way.
What is a good for?
Say it again.
What is is good for?
Say it again.
Nothin' but a heartbreaker...
Video above all verses of "The Star Spangled Banner," anthem of the United States of America.
Nearly six million Jews were deprived of their material possessions, tortured and murdered during the Holocaust of World War II, along with large percentages of other groups deemed inferior and sub-human by the Nazis, for an estimated total of eleven million tormented and exterminated before Allied powers prevailed finally in 1945 and began to uncover the frightful extent of inflicted horror and devastation on them from the elderly to babies to the unborn.
"O Thou, the One from whom
breath enters being in
all radiant forms.
O Parent of the universe, from your
deep interior comes the next wave
of shining life.
O fruitful, nurturing Life-giver!
Your sound rings everywhere
throughout the cosmos.
Father-Mother who births Unity,
You vibrate life into form
in each new instant."
-- Jesus, "The Lord's Prayer" translated from the Aramaic Gospels, Abwoon d'bashmaya, by Neil Douglas-Klotz